Let's learn some history!


#1

So I got a book called “1001 Days that Shaped the World”"

I think it could be cool if you guys chose a number from 1 to 1001 and I’ll tell you some information about the respective event.


#2

Oo! I’ll go for my favourite- 5!


#3

Sargon Takes Empire (2334 B.C.E)

Sargon defeats 2 kings to become the first ruler of the whole of Mesopotamia.

In 2334 B.C.E., Sargon became the first emperor in the history of the world. Sargon came from a humble background- he was brought up by a gardener- but eventually rose to the prestigious position of cup-bearer to Ur-Zababa, the king of the Mesopotamian city of Kish. Sargon later waged war on Lugalzagesi, the powerful king of Uruk, and by defeating him became Emperor of Mesopotamia. Sargon extended his rule across the entire region, and campaigned as far west as the Mediterranean coast of Lebanon and in Anatolia. Sargon, whose name means “the rightful king,” established his capital at Akkad, a city that has never been found, on the banks of the Euphrates. He immediately built a large bureaucracy, which took over the focal role of economic activity from the city temples of old Sumeria. Roads were built and a postal system was devised using royal seals. An attempt was also made to survey the population.
During his 56 year reign, Akkadian, a Semitic tongue, became the official language of Mesopotamia. Sargon faced continuing revolts, first from Lugalzagesi and later from individual city-states. Toward the end of his reign, Akkad was besieged, but on his death in 2279 B.C.E Sargon was able to pass his empire to his sons, and it endured for 150 years before collapsing in internal anarchy.


#4

That’s AWESOME


#5

How about 42?


#6

Ptolemy I takes Egypt (305 B.C.E.)

The first Ptolemaic pharaoh seizes control after the death of Alexander.

After Alexander’s death, 3 of his leading generals divided up the empire and fought one another to establish dominance. Ptolemy was a Macedonian, a childhood friend of Alexander’s. He took firm control of- perhaps stole- Alexander’s corpse in its lavish gold coffin and took it, in a grand procession, to Egypt; the plan was to take it to Memphis, but eventually he took it to Alexandria, where it remained on display for several centuries. Ptolemy took the title of Satrap of Egypt and may have married the daughter of the previous pharaoh, Nectanebo II.
After several years of jockeying for power in Syria, and the threat of invasion from his rival Perdiccas, Ptolemy took the title of king of Egypt in 305 B.C.E, establishing a dynasty that was to rule for 300 years until the arrival of the Romans. Encouraging the often insular Egypt to open itself to Hellenistic influence, he also created the Great Library at Alexandria, which became one of the glories of the classical world, and the “museum” which became the first university. He was the patron of the geometer Euclid and was also responsible for starting the building of the Pharos, or great lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the wonders of the ancient world.

“Collect books on kingship and the exercise of power, and read them.”- Advice to Ptolemy from head of Great Library.


#7

How about 19


#8

What about 55?


#9

562 please


#10

Solon’s Reforms (594 B.C.E)

A new constitution heralds the dawn of Athen’s greatest age.

It could be claimed that the great age of Athenian civilization began in 594 B.C.E when Solon, a moderately wealthy noble (and poet), became archon (chief ruler) of the city and introduced unprecedented far-reaching reforms. A moderate who sought to bring justice and alleviate poverty, he repealed the harsh laws set up by Draco in 621 B.C.E., abolishing the death penalty for all offenses except murder and manslaughter. He also moved significantly away from the aristocratic bias of the old laws, which had excluded all other social classes from government and had made many farmers, mired in debt, into virtual serfs on their own land. Solon also reformed the debt system. Although many at the time believed his reforms would soon be circumvented by the wealthy, in fact they endured for centuries, and Solon acquired the title of one of Athen’s Seven Wise Men.
Politically, his new constitution gave all citizens, regardless of their social standing, the right to attend the General Assembly, and all but the poorest citizens the right to serve on the executive Council of Four Hundred. He also enhanced the rights of foreigners working in Athens. Although many people were left dissatisfied by Solon’s reforms, the laws averted a very real threat of revolution and laid the solid foundations for the glories of Athenian democracy to come.

“Men keep agreements when it is to the advantage of neither to break them.”


#11

Antony and Cleopatra Defeated (31 B.C.E. September 2)

The future of Rome is dedicated at the Battle of Actium on the west coast of Greece.

In the civil strife that followed the assassination of Julius Caeser in 44 B.C.E., Caeser’s adoptive son Octavian and Mark Antony , formerly Caeser’s right-hand man, emerged as joint leaders of the Roman world. While Octavian ruled in Rome, Mark Antony based himself in Alexandria, bound both politically and amorously to the Ptolemaic queen of Egypt, Cleopatra VII. Unsurprisingly, the two men eventually came to a showdown to decide who would be the undisputed ruler of Rome.
In summer 31 B.C.E., Mark Antony and Cleopatra, commanding a large army and naval force, were cornered by Octavian at Actium on the West Coast of Greece. Octavian’s fleet, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, cut their supply line to Egypt, while some 80,000 Roman soldiers confronted them on land. Facing disaster, Antony and Cleopatra devised a plan to break through Agrippa’s naval blockade and escape back to Egypt. They packed the most seaworthy of their warships with sokdiers and loaded 60 merchant vessels with treasure. Maneuvering inshore of Agrippa’s blockade ships, they waited for a favourable wind. The two fleets stumbled into a confused combat, before the wind turned and Cleopatra sailed the merchant vessels into open sea. Antony succeeded in joining her, but his 300 warships were unable to follow and were burned or captured. Antony and Cleopatra returned to Alexandria, but, facing defeat, both would soon commit suicide, leaving Octavian undisputed ruler of Rome.


#12

Alexandria Burns (1882 July 11)

The bombardment marks the beginning of Britain’s domination of Egypt

The attack came after rising tension between the nationalist forces of warlord Arabi (Urabi) Pasha, supported by the Muslim Arab population, and the minority of Europeans and Coptic Christians, protected by Britain and France, with Egypt’s nominal ruler, the Khedive Tewfik, caught in the middle. The completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 increased Anglo-French interest in Egypt, and Arabi Pasha rose to power as a reaction to foreign influence.
In 1882, Arabia’s militia occupied the ancient port of Alexandria and reinforced the city’s ports as an Anglo-French fleet sailed into the harbour, which exacerbated tensions, and in bloody riots in June, Muslim mobs attacked Christian areas of the city, killing more than 50 Europeans and 125 Egyptians, Britain’s Admiral Beauchamp Seymour demanded the Egyptians cease fortifying the city or be bombarded. The french took no part in the subsequent fighting.
No response received, the British fired on the forts on July 7. Some 700 Egyptians were killed as well as one British officer. The forts were damaged and surrounding areas reduced to rubble. The Egyptians retaliated by burning down the city’s foreign quarters. The British landed and established martial law, the prelude to General Garnet Wolseley’s defeat of Arabi Pasha at the Battle of Tel-al-Kebir, and the declaration of a British protectorate over Egypt.

“… the appearance of a city of the dead. It almost puts one in mind of Pompeii.”- William Gill, British traveler in Alexandria.


#13

How about 57?


#14

How about 822?


#15

Um… How about 1? :joy:


#16

Massacre at Carrhae (53 B.C.E. June 6

A Roman plutocrat leads the legions to defeat by the Parthians.

Marcus Licinius Crassus was the richest man in Rome and controlled the Republic with Julius Caesar and Pompey. However, Crassus sought to match the military glory awarded his two colleagues, and so in 53 B.C.E., he led some 50,000 legionaries to invade Mesopotamia, part of the Parthian Empire. The Parthian king, Orodes II, sent an army to meet them, commanded by an aristocrat known as Surena.
When the two forces clashed in the desert near the town of Carrhae on June 6, it was soon obvious that Crassus had severely misjudged the military situation.
Whereas most of the Roman army consisted of armored infantry, the Parthians fought on horseback. Their fast-moving, lightly clad horsemen, armed with powerful composite bows, tormented the legionaries, galloping up to fire into their serried ranks and riding off before the Romans could counterattack. Crassus’s cavalry- auxilaries from Gaul commanded by his son Publius- mounted an offensive sortie but were massacred. Publius’s head was displayed on a spear, further demoralizing the Roman forces. During the Roman retreat at nightfall, more were killed, including Crassus, whose head was sent to King Orodes. Some 20,000 Romans were killed and 10,000 captured. The death of Crassus opened the way for a power struggle between Pompey and Caesar, and the end of the Republic

“The enemy who carried the head of Publius rode close up and displayed it.”- Plutarch (c.46- 120 C.E.), Life of Crassus.